Basic pattern development - Garment Details


                Types of Darts, Pleats, Gathers and Tucks


Dart is flexible and creative part of the pattern. The space between the dart legs can be used in a variety of creative ways and its use is limited only by the imagination of the designer. Darts are named after the line on which they originate.

Types of darts in the garment: Shoulder dart
Bust dart Armhole dart Centre front dart
Waist dart in skirt

Types of Darts

A pleat is an unstitched, folded dart held securely along the joining seamline. It is a fold in the fabric that releases fullness. Pleats are used to increase stride room, or can also be used as a design. Pleats are found on skirts, bodices, sleeves, dresses, jackets etc. they are formed in a variety of ways. They may be folded and left un-pressed or pressed, stitched or left unstitched. They may be grouped together with even or uneven spacing. Pleat depth may be single, doubled or tripled.

Types of pleats:

Knife pleats: Pleats are grouped and face in one direction.

Box pleats: Pleats are folded away from each other on right side of the garment.

Inverted pleats: Pleats are folded to meet each other on the right side of the garment. Accordion pleats: Pleats have folds resembling the bellows of an accordion. The pleats
are close together and depth is equal from waist to hemline.

Sunburst pleats: Pleats fan out and graduate from the waist. They are generally used on circular skirts.
-      -..:::-

Side pleats                                 Box pleats                        Inverted pleats


Gathers change the look of the basic garment, but do not affect the fit. Types of gathers:
Gathers at shoulder Gathers at centre front Gathers at waist Gathers at neckline

Gathers at Shoulder              Gathers at Necklace            Gathers at centre front


A tuck is a stitched fold on the right side of the fabric resembling a pleat. Tucks are used as design details and can be placed on any garment (top, skirt, dress, sleeve, pants etc.). Tucks can be placed in any direction (vertical, horizontal and diagonal) and may be of any width. They can be spaced close or far apart for varying effects.

Types of tucks: Pin tucks Shell tucks
Release tucks

Cross tucks

Space tucks

Spaced tucks                                    Pin tucks

Blind tucks

Types of Collars, Necklines & Edge Finishes


A collar is part of garment that encircles the neck and frames the face, offering great opportunities for design variations. Collars can be developed close to or away from the neckline. They can be wide, narrow, flat, or high, and with or without an attached stand. The
collar edge may be stylized or may follow a basic shape (round, curved, scalloped, square, pointed etc.). Collars can be convertible (can be worn closed and open, so that it lies flat across the chest when opened) or nonconvertible (stay in the same location whether garment is buttoned or unbuttoned).

Types of collars: Peter pan collar Sailor collar Chinese collar Shirt collar
Collar for square neck
Peter-pan Collar                          Chinese Collar                             Shawl Collar


A facing is a finishing to an edge in a garment with a separate piece of fabric stitched to the edge and is folded over to conceal the raw edge. Facings control the fit of the garment when the cut edge is bias or crosses the hollow areas above the bust. Facings are planned as part of the pattern plotting. They are placed from the pattern before or after the design pattern has been developed. They vary in width and shape but generally are from 1 ½ to 2 inches around the neck and armhole.

Types of facings:

Separate facings: Individual facings for armhole and/or neck.

V neck facing

Square neckline facing

Scoop neckline facing

Combination facing: All-in-one armhole and neck facing.


Plackets are finished slits or faced openings designed on all types of garments-bodice, sleeve, skirt, dress, jacket, pant etc. plackets can be of any length and width, with rounded, pointed, stylized or blunt ends. Some plackets have buttons and buttonholes, others may not. The measurement can vary to create different effects.

Types of plackets: Regular shirt placket Half pointed placket
Slit opening with placket

Wing collar placket

Pointed Plackets

Sleeves can be used for changing the silhouette of a garment. Sleeve silhouettes keep changing and evolving over a period of time. There are two major classifications of sleeves:

Set- in sleeve where sleeve is cut separately and stitched into the armhole of the bodice

Raglan Sleeve where sleeve is part of the entire bodice. Types of sleeves:
Cap sleeve -These jut away from the arm and can be shaped in a variety of ways. It is usually designed for a bodice, dress or blouse.

Puff sleeve -Puff sleeves are developed by adding fullness to the sleeve's width. Puff sleeves can be of any length desired.
Bell sleeve -Bell sleeves have a smooth cap and an unconfined hemline flaring out in the shape of a bell. The bell may be developed into any length and flare desired.

Leg-of-Mutton Sleeve -This sleeve is developed by expanding the bicep and cap area, tapering the fullness towards the elbow level.

Raglan sleeve -The raglan sleeve pattern is developed by including part of the neckline and armhole to complete the sleeve draft. The raglan sleeve can be

Designed for bodice, dress, blouse, jacket, coat etc.