Networking - Topology - Tree

Tree topology, also known as hierarchical topology, is a network topology that combines characteristics of bus and star topologies. It arranges devices in a hierarchical structure, with multiple star topologies connected in a bus-like structure. 


Tree topology is commonly used in larger networks, such as enterprise networks or wide area networks (WANs), where a hierarchical structure is desired. It is often used in organizations with multiple branches or divisions.

Key Features:

  • Hierarchical Structure: Tree topology organizes devices in a hierarchical manner, resembling a tree structure. It typically consists of multiple levels, with each level having a central node or switch connected to several devices.
  • Centralized Control: The central nodes at each level of the tree topology provide centralized control and management of the network. They act as intermediaries between the higher-level and lower-level devices.


  • Scalability: Tree topology offers scalability, allowing for the expansion of the network by adding new branches or divisions. New devices can be connected at lower levels of the hierarchy without affecting the rest of the network.
  • Centralized Management: The hierarchical structure of tree topology facilitates centralized management and control. Network administrators can easily monitor and manage different segments or branches of the network from the central nodes.
  • Efficient Use of Resources: Tree topology optimizes the use of network resources. It allows for efficient utilization of bandwidth since traffic is confined within specific branches or segments, reducing network congestion.
  • Flexibility and Segmentation: Tree topology allows for network segmentation. Different branches or divisions can have their own independent networks or subnetworks, providing flexibility in terms of network configuration and security.


  • Dependency on Central Nodes: The central nodes in tree topology play a critical role. If a central node fails, the devices connected to it will lose network connectivity, impacting the entire branch or segment.
  • Single Point of Failure: The root node of the tree topology represents a single point of failure. If the root node or the connection to the root node fails, it can disrupt the entire network.
  • Cost and Complexity: Implementing tree topology can be costlier and more complex compared to other topologies. It requires additional cabling and networking equipment, particularly at the central nodes and higher levels of the hierarchy.
  • Limited Flexibility in Network Layout: The hierarchical nature of tree topology can limit the flexibility in network layout. Changes or modifications to the network structure may require significant reconfiguration or redesign.